FEWD 19 @ GA

Images

Images are placed using the <img> tag.

Specifying an Image

The img tag requires a src attribute, which tells the browser where to find the image to be placed.

Given a folder structure like:

webroot/
    index.html
    about/
        index.html
    css/
        main.css
    images/
        background.gif
        logo.png
        photo.jpg

There are different approaches to specifying an image location:

Relative

Inside webroot/index.html, a relative path could be used like so:

<img src="images/logo.png">

Whereas inside webroot/about/index.html, the same image would be:

<img src="../images/logo.png">

Note that .. means to go up a directory, and can be used repeatedly: ../.. would go up two directories.

Absolute

Absolute URLs start with a /, so if we imagine that our webroot directory was stored on a server such that the webroot/index.html file is accessible at http://example.com/index.html, then placing the logo image could be done from any html page with:

<img src="/images/logo.png">

The benefit here is that this same src path works on any html page, no matter what its location, so the same img tag can be used on both the webroot/index.html page and the webroot/about/index.html page.

The downside is that the path only works if the project is stored to a proper location for serving.

Full URL

Full URLs can also be used, such as:

<img src="https://ga-core.s3.amazonaws.com/production/uploads/program/default_image/397/thumb_User-Experience-Sketching.jpg">

Note: For linking to images, make sure that you have permission to use the image in this way. Even then, it is often better to host a copy of the same image, rather than link to another server, because it reduces dependency.

Accessibility and SEO

To make our images more accessible, we should always strive to include an alt attribute as well, a piece of text to be used in lieu of the image when the image is unavailable for some reason, such as

Using alt attributes has the added benefit of giving search engines more linguistic context about the image as it is used on your page.

Here’s what they look like:

<img src="puppy.jpg" alt="My cute puppy">

Image Formats

There are also three main image file formats:

  1. gif – can have basic transparency, typically a png is used instead.
  2. jpeg – no transparency, can be stored at different compression levels with varying amounts of “lossy-ness”, typically the best format for photos. (Try to balance between photo quality and file size.) These can use either the .jpeg or the .jpg extension. It is generally advisable to pick one and stick with it. I generally use .jpg.
  3. png – supports transparency and semi-transparency, great for logos, icons, and repeating background tiles. Almost always preferable to a gif, unless semi-transparency is not needed, and the gif format is significantly smaller.